12 Scholars Walk Dissertation

Rationale and Introduction

Mentors working in the area of clinical translational science face increasing challenges for their time, expertise, and energy. Some of these challenges include the continuous writing of grants to support their science and research teams, publishing their work, developing new research ideas and experiments, dealing with human subjects regulations/legal system oversight, managing administrative demands related to supervising research staff, maintaining patient care skills, balancing department/institutional/national leadership demands, teaching trainees to conduct the best science possible, and providing career mentorship to young investigators establishing independent research programs.

Mentoring a K scholar or a new investigator is often seen as a highlight of one’s research career. It is an opportunity to give back and share what has been learned. Mentors are often internally motivated to train the next generation of physicians and other scientists. Mentors see this as an opportunity to leave a legacy. They feel pride when one of their former K scholars becomes the chair of a department, directs a clinical division, heads up an institute, or receives a major award such as being elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Such accomplishments can result in increased professional recognition for the mentor.1 However, mentoring a K scholar can also be perceived as a burden. A mentee has the potential to increase productivity in the laboratory (or working group) but this often requires an “up-front investment” to help the mentee reach his or her full potential. The time and energy required may detract from a research mentor’s own research program, personal activities, and family time.

There is a pressing need for the research community to address the workload, institutional expectations, and reward system for research mentors. The dearth of research mentors and role models in clinical translational science parallels the decreasing number of physicians choosing careers in clinical research. What can we do as institutions and leaders of K programs to support research mentors? We hope this paper will provide new insights into how we can support and increase the number of research mentors engaged in clinical translational science.

Methods

The findings of this report were derived from the scientific literature, a national survey of 46 CTSA KL2 directors,2 focus groups conducted with 45 research mentors from four institutions, and the mentoring experience of members of the CTSA national mentor working group (see acknowledgments). The working group has been meeting since 2008 to develop a consensus statement on “effective mentoring practices.” This paper is one in a series of white papers focused on mentoring new investigators in clinical translational science.

Results

The working group determined that a number of strategies are used to support research mentors for K scholars including: monetary support, access to core laboratories and other CTSA-related services, assistance with grant and manuscript preparation, membership in mentor academies, mentor awards, mentor training, promotion, and peer support.

Monetary support

Three methods of monetary support for mentors were employed across CTSAs and the NIH.2 The first method provided a fixed amount the mentor could use to support a portion of his or her salary or for research. This amount varied from $5,000 to $15,000 for each year of the scholar’s K award. The NIH roadmap K program funded by NCRR provides up to $5,000 to research mentors of K12 scholars. The second method supported a specific portion of a mentor’s salary, most commonly 10%. The monetary support was derived from various departmental and medical school resources. Alternatively, a fixed amount of monetary support came from the NIH K24 mechanism that provided up to 50% salary support (to the NIH max of $198,000) for mentoring activities. Finally, a third support method provided travel to professional meetings that can frequently represent a significant, recurring expense for mentors.

To provide a perspective on financial compensation for mentoring in academic medicine, a recent published survey of selected general internal medicine leaders indicated that approximately 47% (52/111) received specific funding for mentoring, with a median supported time of 0.15 full-time equivalents (FTE) for mentoring. Interestingly, funding was significantly more common among clinician investigators compared to nonclinician investigators, and male mentors tended to be funded more often than females. Federal funding provided the majority of compensation (39% of sources), while the department or institution supported funding approximately 14% of the time.3

Despite the relatively common support for mentoring among this general internal medicine cohort, mentors who participated in our K focus groups had varying opinions about monetary support. Some said they were already at 1.0 FTE and supplementing salaries could limit their ability to apply for additional grants. Others commented monetary support was unnecessary and did not influence their commitment to their trainees, as they were primarily motivated by internal factors. However, the overall consensus of most mentors in the focus groups was that salary support is helpful and provides a mentor with protected time to serve in the mentoring capacity. Monetary support for mentoring scholars, especially scholars outside of one’s home department, resulted in decreased pressure by departmental chairs to justify this activity. As commented by a mentor who participated in one of our focus groups,

“…. I know that every department is different, but in ours, the only thing that’s actually counted accurately is clinical revenue. And then that’s used to determine salary. And then, if you get a grant, you can buy out some time, but you certainly don’t get any credit for mentoring unless you have a grant to be a mentor.”

Although faculty compensation as described by this mentor is frequently linked tightly to clinical revenue and grant support, a dissertation from the University of Oklahoma based on information from 422 respondents of 1,200 faculty and 120 administrators at six Midwestern medical schools suggests that compensation strategies seem to be changing in recent years. Evidence from these medical schools indicates the way that faculty members are most likely to be compensated takes into account not just patient care and research, but other components of professional activity in the determination of compensation, including teaching and service.4

Therefore, we believe that salary support for K mentoring could be a useful means of mentor support, and could also contribute to retention of qualified, dedicated mentors. Salary support as an incentive is in keeping with observations of Straus and colleagues,5 who analyzed 25 qualitative and quantitative studies in order to elucidate the factors that influence choosing a career in academic medicine. Of seven studies containing data regarding disincentives to an academic medicine career, five studies surveyed current faculty members, who were presumably in an academic post. Ultimately, the most frequently cited disincentive to choose academic medicine as a career was lower financial rewards.

Access to infrastructure or discounts on core facilities needed to conduct clinical translational research

Many of the 55 currently funded CTSAs offer membership to core institute infrastructure. Membership offers discounts to laboratory facilities and access to other resources such as clinical research units, assistance with regulatory requirements and research methodologists. While the survey of KL2 directors did not reveal any specific membership advantages for research mentors of K scholars2 this may be a missed opportunity. One comment from a focus group participant indicated the expense of working with a K scholar,

“I think for people who have labs, every person who’s in your lab is a substantial cost; not a minor cost. It’s not like, ‘You’re gonna cost me $300 a month.’ They’re gonna cost you at least $1,000 a month when they walk in your laboratory.”

Prioritizing CTSA resources to faculty who are mentoring the education and training of clinical-translational researchers could be a logical way to ensure that an acceptable “return on investment” for providing scarce CTSA resources is achieved, while at the same time defraying the cost to the mentor in time and effort.

Another interesting infrastructure concept that would be reasonable to support for clinical translational mentors included financial education. Some focus group participants regarded the mentor-mentee relationship and its associated grant (KL2, K23, or K08) like a small business, and felt inadequately trained to operate in this paradigm. In the words of a focus group participant,

“I think nobody is prepared for becoming a basically a small or large business operator when they become a scientist. We try to start teaching people managing their own budgets …and move them all the way up as they get bigger. A lot of us don’t even have adequate training to teach them how to do it. The business offices tend to be so busy that they can give you just a micro slice of their time and answer questions. They can’t give you the over-arching training that really teaches you how to do it. I think this is something that there is a huge need to start training people when they get their Ks,…. not to expect the mentor to do it… I’ve just seen so many people fall flat on their face; have no idea how much money they have and really end up in a bad position because they’ve not learned how to manage their money.”

Others expressed their frustration in the oftentimes arcane procedures to track expenses and budgets,

“There’s sort of a larger question, in our institution, about infrastructure to support grants. The accounting tools that the university has are coal fire and archaic and it’s really difficult to get reports. Many of us have cobbled together systems that can provide feedback to investigators so they know what to encumber, they know when they’re gonna run out of money, they know where they stand.”

Providing a clear, succinct grant management approach to mentors within clinical translational science—who often have complex funding portfolios—would help to free the mentor’s time to serve in the mentoring role, as well as decrease anxiety and concern over budget shortfalls and surprises.

Mentor academies

A number of CTSA institutions have developed mentoring academies. Academies focused on supporting teaching efforts in medical schools developed in the late 1990s, in response to increasing pressures on academic physicians to maximize clinical and research time. Interestingly, they emerged at a time when the need for reform in medical education was being addressed. Some of the first such academies were found at University of California–San Francisco and Harvard University. By 2003, academies could be found in most regions of the United States. The goals of the earliest academies were to provide support to accomplished teaching faculty who were seen to have the greatest impact on the school’s educational mission,6 and to provide increased recognition for teaching faculty.7

“Medical educator academies” are formal organizations with designated leadership, composed of distinguished educator faculty and designed to enhance the educational mission of their institutions.8 One published description of a teaching academy defines it as “a formal organization of academic teaching faculty who have been formally (or specifically) recognized for excellence in their contributions to the education mission of the medical school, and who serve specific functions on behalf of the institution…a functioning organization, not simply a group of recognized faculty.”7 Based on two separate published surveys of medical schools, one published in 2005,7 and one more recently in 2010,9 the number of academies of medical educators is growing nationwide; some academies have been developed on campuses with CTSAs.

The 2010 survey indicates 36 such academies in the United States met the definition of a “teaching academy”. Features of these included a nominations process for membership that varied from self-nomination to nomination by a dean or other academy member. Most commonly, selection of members was determined by an internal peer review committee. Criteria important for membership selection included quality of teaching, educational leadership activities, and educational research efforts. About half of these academies granted lifetime membership to their members, while the other half required membership renewal. Of the 25 that required renewal, 12 included mentoring of faculty and/or students as a criterion for extending membership beyond the initial phase. The majority of members (75%) were responsible for teaching residents, fellows, graduate students, and postdoctoral research fellows.

Individual benefits of membership in a teaching academy were divided broadly into nonmonetary and monetary rewards. Nonmonetary benefits reported by members included school-wide recognition (92% of academies), networking/collaborating opportunities (78% of academies), participation in faculty development activities (50% of academies), weight in promotion/advancement decisions (50% of academies), and mentoring (39% of academies). Providing a means for faculty development and mentoring were characteristics more typical of newer academy programs. This perhaps signifies a departure from honors and recognition of the individual teacher toward providing a product to support and enhance skills as a teacher and mentor. Monetary rewards were provided by 78% of academies, but this was rarely devoted to protected time to be used for mentoring (8.3%). Additionally, monetary benefits provided via these academies appear to be declining in recent years.9

Challenges in establishing mentor academies among CTSAs have included creating a format that will fit the needs of a majority of mentors, particularly given the diverse clinical responsibilities and travel schedules of the average clinical-translational mentor. Although mentors typically believe that mechanisms of mentor support are important and relevant, they are oftentimes unwilling to dedicate time to this endeavor. In the words of one CTSA director who participated in one of the KL-2 director surveys,

“We struggled to find a format that really worked for mentors.”

Another potential concern for formal mentoring academies is their cost in terms of resources and time spent in role preparation, support, agreeing on processes, conduct, monitoring of performance, and evaluation of effectiveness. Consistent leadership of the academy has been a challenge at some CTSA sites.2 These features may limit the sustainability of a formalized academy at a given institution.10 In terms of monetary support, to provide some reference for cost, approximately 20% of teaching academies in the 2010 Searle survey had an annual budget of over $100000. Forty-four percent had an annual budget of $25,000 or less. The majority of institutions had funding itemized in the school’s budget. A dedicated endowment was uncommon.

Certainly, further efforts to establish CTSA mentoring academies to support and educate clinical translational mentors are worthwhile; however, their exact design and methods to support such endeavors long term will require on-going investigation. The templates provided by numerous teaching academies as well as the few true mentoring academies in the United States will hopefully inform the design of programs with lasting value to mentors.

Mentor and faculty development training programs

There are a number of institutions developing mentor training programs focused on research mentors who work in the area of clinical translational science. The Mentor Development Program (MDP) at UCSF is one such program.11,12 The MDP was an offshoot of the UCSF Faculty Mentoring Program established in 2006, and was designed to improve availability and quantity of mentoring for UCSF faculty. For this program, a curriculum was developed consisting of 10 case-based seminars held during monthly half-day meetings over a 5-month period. The seminars were selected to enhance two types of support that were identified as important in mentoring: instrumental and psychosocial support.12 The former type of support (instrumental) provides practical and informational guidance (contributing to the “mentor’s toolbox”), while the latter provides emotional, role modeling, and empathizing types of support. For example, seminars focused on concepts including “balancing work and life,”“understanding academic advancement policies,”“understanding economic and fiscal realities for successful academic careers,” and “understanding intramural and extramural grants,” all of which might be perceived as supportive for the mentor.

Seminars were conducted by program directors, senior research faculty members, and external/internal experts at UCSF. Importantly, networking time with other mentors-in-training and senior mentors was included in the program. Much like teaching academies, a formalized application and selection process was utilized to choose participants in the program, and enrollment was limited to 15 individuals concurrently. Most participating mentors were at the midcareer level or early senior faculty level. Assessment tools to evaluate the program pre- and postattendance indicated that the program had a significant benefit not just for the mentors’ skills sets, but also positively impacted interaction with others, including senior faculty, and aided the mentors in goal setting. Certainly, additional CTSA-supported programs such as this could serve to build a culture of support for mentors in clinical translational research.

Another mentor training program currently being tested among 16 universities, is based on the training program called “Entering Mentoring.”13 This competency-based, case-based, 8-hour curriculum is designed to improve communication, to better align mentee and mentor expectations, to provide methods for evaluation and feedback, and to promote mentee academic development. The results of this trial will be available in the fall of 2011.

Promotion issues

Recognition and support of mentoring efforts by one’s home institution can provide a catalyst to encourage mentoring by faculty members in clinical translational research. It may also ensure that mentors spend more than requisite time in mentoring.1 In the words of one focus group mentor,

“It might be that it’s as simple as an individual is lucky enough to have a K scholar and that their chair gets this formal notice that’s saying this individual is now a mentor of a K scholar. This is an extraordinarily important thing to the institution and empower[s] the chairs. Something, I think, is important to recognize that it’s a very time consuming job.”

Including time and effort spent in mentoring toward promotion or tenure has been posed as a concrete incentive that might support mentoring activities, particularly mentors at the Assistant or Associate Professor level. Based on discussions with other CTSAs, mentoring activity for a K scholar (or other mentees) would typically be included in a promotions dossier as teaching-related activity; however, mentoring only in this context (without other teaching) would likely be insufficient to impress a promotions committee as “teaching excellence.” In reviewing promotions matrixes from two specific CTSA sites (University of Colorado, Emory University), “mentoring” is mentioned specifically as a teaching activity; however, this was not found to be the case at other CTSA sites (University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Texas-Southwestern). As CTSAs increase in number and become more widespread, mentoring activity as part of the promotions process needs to be addressed systematically. Furthermore, consideration regarding what weight clinical translational mentoring plays in tenure decisions for more senior faculty, if at all, should be subjected to thoughtful dialogue.

Peer support groups

Most mentoring literature focuses on the junior mentor as naïve to the ways of the research world—an individual who will with time acquire knowledge from his or her senior, more experienced colleagues, and later impart it to his/her own mentees. However, believing that acquiring mentoring support only in situations where this power differential exists is not perfect.14 Literature from medical educators suggests that peer mentoring is feasible, and perhaps preferable, to typical junior-senior dyadic mentoring, in that it represents a nonhierarchical process where insights, experiences, ideas, guidance, problem solving, and support can be shared15 without the influence of power differentials, dominance, dependency, or transference more typical of junior-senior mentoring relationships.14 A growing movement toward peer mentoring may prove to be a useful way to provide mentor support, and the need for such a venue was expressed by mentor participants in our focus groups,

“…so you wonder about rather than sort of a two day workshop where you go and say, “Here’s the things you do,”…there may be some things where there is a resource round table or sort of “mentors for mentors” or something where you can get problem solving – because it’s hard to sort of impart that skill set …it’s so experiential in some individuals.”

The Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University designed, implemented, and evaluated a peer modeling system in an academic environment.14 The project was supported by the US DHHS, who designated Brody as a National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine. The program focused on assistant professors who had the assurance of protected time to complete the program by their chairpersons. The program was 80 hours total in length, consisting of an initial 3-day session, and then full-day programs once a month for 6 months (entire program = 8 months). It was held in a setting outside of the medical school. The primary aim of the program was to support the academic career goals of the participants.

Sessions included: fostering awareness of career goals, personal values, strengths, and priorities; facilitation of participants becoming part of a collaborative and collegial team; and promoting awareness of gender/power issues in relation to career goals. A program attendance of 89% was observed at the program’s completion. In its evaluations, participants rated the academic development portion of the program 1.86 on a 5-point Likert scale where 1 = excellent and 5 = poor. Three primary factors identified as contributing to the program’s effectiveness were the provision of a safe, supportive learning environment that fostered interpersonal communication, the dedication of regularly scheduled time for program participation and reflection, and a program setting physically separate from the work environment.

Qualitatively, the program was perceived as an excellent opportunity to identify personal core values, to apply concrete steps for career planning and priority setting, to meet and interact with diverse peer colleagues from a variety of disciplines. Peer mentoring has the potential to facilitate retention of faculty in academic medicine through its effects on the sense of community and collegiality it engendered. Along with mentoring academies, peer groups of likeminded clinical translational mentors could provide a tangible method for support of these individuals.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Support for research mentors is an important area that requires new ideas and new initiatives to expand the number of healthcare professionals and scientists working in the area of clinical translational science. Research mentors need to be able to maintain their own research programs, participate in teaching, leadership activities and, sometimes, patient care, as well as train the next generation. This is no easy task. The strategies presented in this paper represent the current state of the art and provide a platform on which to build and test support programs for mentors of KL2 scholars.

Acknowledgments

We would like to recognize the contributions of the CTSA mentoring working group who include Charlie Huskins, Mayo Clinic; Anne Marie Weber-Main, University of Minnesota; John Hamilton, Duke University; Vance Fowler, Duke University; Melissa Begg, Columbia University; Jane Garbutt, Washington University; Henry Blumberg, Emory University; Richard McGee, Northwestern University; Mitch Feldman, University of California at San Francisco; Kurt Kroenke, Indiana University; Harold Pincus, Columbia University; Zainab Abedin, Columbia University; Emma Meagher, University of Pennsylvania; Jeff Probstfield, Washington University; Wishwa Kapoor, University of Pittsburgh; Howard Bauchner, Boston Medical Center; Lauren Taylor, Northwestern University; Chris Pfund, University of Wisconsin-Madison; David Wilde, NIH/NCRR; and Karin Silet, University of Wisconsin-Madison. None of the authors (ELB, SS, MF) have any conflicts of interest to declare with the content of this manuscript. This paper was supported by KL2 RR025779, UL1 RR025780, UL1 RR025 011, and K24 AA015390.

Below are the names of the great thinkers represented on the Wall of Discovery, along with a description of the item rendered on the wall.

Alexander Anderson 

Notes and sketches on the cereal grain puffing process. He eventually received 25 patents on the puffing process and the machinery used to manufacture it.   

Robert Anderson 

Illustrations from one of the patents for the Gentle Leader® Headcollar developed with Ruth Foster and Bertyl Carlson, as a humane training aid (halter) to help dog owners more easily manage the behavior of their pets.   

Dominick Argento 

Original score from the Pulitzer Prize winning song cycle From the Diary of Virginia Wolf.   

Rutherford Aris 

Research notes predicting the effects of diffusion on the productivity of a nonisothermal catalyst particle for a chemical reaction of arbitrary kinetics.   

Wallace Armstrong 

Lab notes from his research on calcium metabolism, the biochemistry of bones and teeth, which led the way for the addition of flouride in drinking water to combat dental issues.   

Rolland Arndt 

Worked on the circuitry and redesign of the NIKEZEUS at Remington Rand in 1958-1960. Remington Rand was one of the principal contractors for the development of America’s ABM system. It began with the Army’s NIKEZEUS system, a concept very similar to the other NIKE systems. ZEUS had radars to acquire and track the target and also a radar to track the intercepting missile, as well as a computer.   

Karen Ashe Hsiao 

Page from the lab book with the slot blot detectin the human transgene in the founder mouse of the Tg2576 mouse model, a mouse with an inherited form of Alzheimer’s disease. Has recently reversed the effects of memory loss in laboratory animals, even after neuronal death. This has never been done before (published in Science in 2005).   

Marvin Bacaner 

Lab notes from the development of the drug bretylium tosylate in the 1960s, which has been used to save countless heart attack victims. Bretylium, patented in 1978, has become a widely prescribed drug for preventing heart disease and life-threatening arrhythmias. Dr. Bacaner, in collaboration with retired chemistry professor, Dr. Maurice Kreevoy, has developed an oral form of Bretylium, previously only available as an injectible.   

Earl Bakken 

Original hand drawn schematic of the world’s first transistorized cardiac pacemaker, circa 1958, by the co-founder of Medtronic, Inc.   

John Bardeen 

Pages from from his lab notebook at the time the transistor was discovered. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 and 1972, for his work on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.   

Saul Bellow 

Letter from Saul Bellow to Graham Ackroyd in reply to a query on Dangling Man. Discusses distaste for work of Paul Bowles, the public image of Hemingway - referring to a recent New Yorker magazine article he has disliked (37:17 Jl 15, 61, p. 17). Expresses sympathy for the editorial efforts of [Sinbad] Vail, in Paints, and mentions Faulkner. Thanks Ackroyd for his letter. Bellow won the Nobel Prize for Literature 1976 for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture.   

John Berryman 

Handwritten draft of the poem ‘Snow Line,’ published in 77 Dream Songs, 1964, by Farrar, Straus & Giroux. This is the book for which he won the Pulitzer Prize.   

Harry Blackmun 

This letter illustrates the judicial collaboration of Harry Blackmun and Warren Burger, boyhood friends, in US v. Nixon (the Watergate tapes case). In that landmark 1974 decision, which quickly led to the resignation of Richard Nixon, the Supreme Court recognized that a President had the right to keep executive-branch conversations and records confidential in the national interest, but that the privilege was not absolute, and the rule of law must prevail in the absence of a specific demonstration of national-security interests. Chief Justice Burger wrote the opinion for the Court, and Associate Justice Blackmun contributed a significant portion to the final.   

Carol Bly 

From ‘The Tender Organizations,’ in The Tomcat’s Wife and Other Stories, Harper Collins, 1989.   

Norman Borlaug

Final handwritten edited copy of 1970 Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech for developing disease resistant and highly adaptable crop varieties that sparked the ‘green revolution.’   

Pauline Boss 

Notes from her book Ambiguous Loss which summarizes 25 years of research on ambiguous loss, a term she coined in the late 1970s while discovering how traumatizing it was for families to have members missing, physically or psychologically. The theory of ambiguous loss is now widely used to understand and treat relationships whenever loved ones are missing in mind or body. Worked with 9/11 victims.   

Paul Boyer 

Sketches made for seminars during elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Further research led to a Nobel Prize in 1997.   

Walter Brattain 

These pages record the moment when the first transistor was shown to the higher-ups at Bell Labs. A microphone and headphones were connected to the transistor, and the device was actually spoken over ‘with no noticeable change in quality’ writes Brattain. Received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 for developing the transistor.   

Herbert Brooks 

Journal page from his playbooks reflecting on the 1980 USA Olympic hockey team’s ‘Miracle on Ice.’   

Michael Dennis Browne  

‘Pilgrims’ Hymn’ is from The Three Hermits, a church opera commissioned by House of Hope Church in St. Paul in 1997. It has entered the contemporary repertory, with more than three dozen recordings already and large sales as sheet music.   

Henry Buchwald 

Illustrations from patents and note from laboratory diary on the development of the first implantable infusion pump invented by surgeons Henry Buchwald, Richard Varco, mechanical engineers Frank Dorman and Perry L. Blackshear, Jr., and physiologist Perry J. Blackshear.   

Warren Burger 

This letter illustrates the judicial collaboration of Harry Blackmun and Warren Burger, boyhood friends, in US v. Nixon (the Watergate tapes case). In that landmark 1974 decision, which quickly led to the resignation of Richard Nixon, the Supreme Court recognized that a President had the right to keep executive-branch conversations and records confidential in the national interest, but that the privilege was not absolute, and the rule of law must prevail in the absence of a specific demonstration of national-security interests. Chief Justice Burger wrote the opinion for the Court, and Associate Justice Blackmun contributed a significant portion to the final.   

Melvin Calvin 

Lecture notes on photosynthesis at Cambridge by the winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961 for describing the chemical reactions that occur during photosynthesis.   

Jean Illsley Clarke 

Sketch of the Nurture/Structure Highway, a key component of her teaching from several of her books on topics of parenting, self-esteem and group dynamics. Later evolved into the Developmental Parenting Highway, a widely used help for adults counteracting overindulgence of children.   

Elizabeth Close 

Plans and section for Guest Cabin (at Skywater) for Joseph and Dagmar Beach, (WI), 1940. Also designed 14 homes in University Grove, Ferguson Hall and the music school as well as laying out the West Bank, Duluth and Waseca campuses.   

Winston Close 

Plans and section for Guest Cabin (at Skywater) for Joseph and Dagmar Beach, (WI), 1940. Also designed 14 homes in University Grove, Ferguson Hall and the music school as well as laying out the West Bank, Duluth and Waseca campuses.   

Jay Cohn 

Notes on planning one of the clinical trials leading to the approval of BiDil for treatment of heart failure 28 years after the drug combination was developed.

William  Cooper 

The first detailed description of Johns Hopkins Glacier, Glacier Bay, Alaska, from the field notes of 1929. Today, Cooper is considered to be the founding father of Glacier Bay National Monument, now Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve.   

Seymour Cray 

Page from his notebooks with the boolean mathematics for the modules of the Cray I supercomputer. Cray is known as the ‘father of the supercomputer.’   

Edward Wilson Davis

Patent sketch for the development processes for converting taconite into iron ore in 1946. Known as the ‘father of taconite,’ he was regarded as one of the world’s foremost authorities on the processing of iron ore and taconite.   

Richard DeWall 

Sketch of the first practical heart-lung machine; the deceptively simple ‘bubble oxygenator’ he developed that would revolutionize cardiovascular surgery.   

Sam Dillon 

Notebook page of the Pulitzer Prize winning reporter for The New York Times from interviews with Vicente Fox during his campaign for the presidency, which he won in 2000, ending 71 years of one party rule in Mexico.

Max Donath 

Figures from the patent using GPS, a digital map database, obstacle detection radar, and a heads-up display, to provide drivers with a virtual reality representation of the road when driving conditions make it almost impossible to see. Co-inventors include Craig R. Shankwitz, Heon Min Lim, Bryan Newstrom, Alec Gorjestani, Sameer Pardhy, Lee Alexander, Pi-Ming Cheng.   

Bob Dylan 

Lyrics for ‘Temporary Like Achilles,’ ‘Absolutely Sweet Marie’ and ‘Most Likely You Go Your Way (and I’ll Go Mine)’ from Blonde on Blonde, circa March 1966.   

Louis Errede 

Sketch from patent of a process for the manufacture of unsaturated fluorine-containing compounds. One of numerous patents he received while at 3M, the scientific aspects of which have been published in leading scientific journals.

Bruce Fink 

Sketch and label from the first lichen flora of any state (Minnesota) in 1910. Eventually wrote a lichen flora of all of the United States.

Phyllis St. Cyr Freier

Graph from her work on a cosmic ray program using Jean Piccard’s plastic balloons. A world-renowned physicist, she discovered the presence of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays, proving the similarity between our solar system and the rest of the galaxy.   

Robert Rowe Gilruth 

Notes from his farewell speech, March 3, 1972. Pioneer in U.S. aviation and space flight; often considered the ‘father of America’s human space flight program.’   

Robert Good 

Manuscript for a published review article on the history of the world’s first and second successful bone marrow transplants performed by Dr. Good and his team at the University of  Minnesota in August and November 1968.   

Robert Gore 

Notebook with his ‘eureka moment’ for the discovery of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, the polymer known by the Gore-Tex® brand name. The material has been worn by Arctic explorers, incorporated in space suits and implanted in millions of patients.   

Eville Gorham

Manuscript text for an article describing the spread of urban/industrial air pollution into a rural area, where its role in lake acidification was discovered.   

Patricia Hampl 

Poem that first appeared in The New Yorker, perhaps best described as an ode to a parking ramp--which may be a first in literary history.   

Leland  Hansen 

Designed a High Frequency Chest Compression device to be used as an aid in clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with Cystic Fibrosis or other obstructive lung disease. Tens of thousands of patients in the U.S. alone now receive HFCC therapy, the quality of their lives markedly improved.   

Starke Hathaway 

Early version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, which became a widely-used tool to test for psychological traits of illness.   

Endesha Ida Mae Holland 

Page from original, typewritten scripts of her play Miss Ida B. Wells (1983), which includes her handwritten notes, editing and cut and paste pages.   

Hubert Humphrey 

Handwritten notes for his speech on the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mayor of Minneapolis, U.S. Senator and Vice President of the United States.   

Roberta Humphreys 

Hand-drawn figure of the 1979 discovery of the empirical upper limit to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, now known as the Humphreys-Davidson Limit. This is the upper limit on the luminosities (and masses) for stars.   

Reynold Johnson 

Sketch from invention of the “mark sensing” method of scoring standardized tests taken with a No. 2 lead pencil, a technology still widely familiar to students and teachers. Led development of IBM RAMAC, the first random access computer disk drive, precursor of generations of magnetic disk drives in widespread use today. Holder of 96  U.S.  patents.   

Garrison Keillor 

Song lyrics from an early A Prairie Home Companion. Whether the radio show’s first decade or its fourth, the host’s jottings on paper scraps or computer disk, the creative process remains pretty much the same.   

Ancel Keys 

Graph from study showing the relation between diet and lifestyle and heart attack risk at the level of populations and whole cultures. This he did by measuring whole populations and following them 30 years, then preparing regressions of their attack rates on the group characteristic during health. In the enclosed case it is the ratio of mono fats (olive oil) to saturated fats (meat and dairy) in the population diet versus their coronary deaths. Also developed K-rations.   

Isaak Kolthoff 

Notebook page from the published works of the ‘father of modern analytical chemistry,’ who helped create synthetic rubber by the ‘cold process.’ He was a major force in converting analytical chemistry into a discipline based on fundamental physical principles.   

Elizabeth Libby Larsen

Original manuscript of Symphony: Water Music which was dedicated to Sir Neville Marriner with gratitude and appreciation in 1984. This piece was commissioned by the Minnesota Orchestra.   

Ernest Lawrence 

Manuscript lecture notes. Won the Nobel Prize for Physics 1939 for inventing and developing the cyclotron.   

F. John Lewis 

Actual minute by minute operating room notes from the world’s first open heart surgery under direct vision.   

Edward Lewis 

Laboratory notebook page documenting the first of over 53,000 matings in the course of more than 60 years (1941-2004) of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. These crosses led to the discovery of a class of genes that control embryonic development in all animals. Lewis was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1995. 

Anatoly Liberman 

Notes from his research over the past 20 years on a new etymological dictionary of English which is due to be published in the near future.   

Jacob Liebenberg 

Perspective rendering for remodeling of Varsity Theater, (Mpls., MN), 1938. He designed more than 200 grand Art Deco movie theaters, including the Uptown and Suburban World.   

C. Walton Lillehei 

Notes summarizing the early results of first 160 open-heart surgeries (1954-1956) and completed the 1,000th open-heart surgery in 1960.   

Raymond Lindeman 

Figure pages of his The Trophic Dynamic Aspect of Ecology (January 1942 edition as submitted to Carpenter and Shelford). Considered ‘the father of the ecosystem concept.’   

Gertrude Lawton Lippincott 

Choreographic notes from the 1954 production of Madonna Della Rosa by the pioneering modern dancer and choreographer.   

James Luby 

Notes from evaluations of the first grafted trees of the Honeycrisp apple which was tested under the experimental designation ‘MN 1711’ and produced as part of the University of Minnesota apple breeding program to develop winter hardy cultivars with high fruit quality.   

Mark McCahill 

Notes from a meeting of the Gopher development team (Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Dan Torrey, Bob Alberti). Gopher was the earliest popular Internet document publishing and search engine. Also lead the team at the University of Minnesota that developed POPmail, one of the first popular e-mail clients.

William McDonald 

Page from notebook detailing magnetometer readings which resulted in significant findings in the initial trench excavation at the Nichoria ridge in Southern Greece. First use of geophysics in archaeology in Greece, circa 1969. 

J. Charnley McKinley 

Early version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, which became a widely-used tool to test for psychological traits of illness.   

Alfred Michael 

A notebook entry from his studies describing the first immunohistology of the kidney in children with glomerulonephritis, leading directly to understanding the pathogenesis of various forms of glomerulonephritis. 

Panos Michalopoulos 

Notes and sketches from the patent for the Autoscope artificial vision system integrating miniature video cameras and microprocessors for traffic sensing and measurement extraction to control congested street and highway networks, detect incidents, improve safety and security, and manage traffic efficiently.   

Calvin Mooers 

Drawing from his invention of Zatocoding, an information retrieval system which he described as ‘a complete system.’ Zatacoding used a series of specially notched cards as a technique for retrieving information. Each notch was a descriptor representing information in the document to which that card referred. 

John Najarian 

Sketch for the Minnesota Anti-Lymphocyte Globulin (MALG) process. He developed MALG, but the process was further refined by Richard Condie. In addition, he developed other anti-rejection drugs for organ transplantation.   

Gary Nelsestuen 

Notes to illustrate frustration with correct vs. conflicting information at this early stage of the 1974 identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in vitamin K-dependent proteins (coauthors Thomas Zytkovicz, James Howard with mass spectrometry expertise by Thomas Krick). Members of this protein family function in both promotion and inhibition of blood coagulation and are drugs or drug targets for treatment of coagulation disorders.   

Edward Ney 

Notes from his work on a cosmic ray program using Jean Piccard’s plastic balloons which measured incoming high energy particles. After early work involving separating isotopes from uranium, he worked on the Manhattan Project which created the first atomic bomb.   

Alfred Nier 

Sketch from the papers of ‘the father of modern mass spectrometry’, and a pioneering physicist, he devised a method to isolate uranium isotope, a critical discovery in the atomic age. His development of the mass spectrometer helped to determine atomic masses, weights, and isotope abundance applied to numerous scientific and biomedical applications.   

Judy Olausen 

Original conceptual sketch and notes for a photograph from the New York Times best selling book Mother by this internationally known photojournalist. The Mother book is a unique vision of the Eisenhower-era mother. The hilarious and often haunting images serve as both a tribute to and deconstruction of the institution of motherhood. 

Frank Oppenheimer 

Miscellaneous research notes. He worked on uranium isotope separation in 1945 and joined the Manhattan Project headed by his older brother.   

Stephen Paulus 

‘Pilgrims’ Hymn’ is from The Three Hermits, a church opera commissioned by House of Hope Church in St. Paul in 1997. It has entered the contemporary repertory, with more than three dozen recordings already and large sales as sheet music.   

William Pedersen 

Original conceptual sketch for the Shanghai World Financial Center, one of the world’s tallest buildings. Designer of some of the world’s most distinctive large structures.

Ronald Phillips 

Notes from discovery with Ed Green of regeneration of whole corn plants from cells in a petri dish.   

George Rip Rapp 

Page from notebook detailing magnetometer readings which resulted in significant findings in the initial trench excavation at the Nichoria ridge in Southern Greece. First use of geophysics in archaeology in Greece, circa 1969.   

Ralph Rapson 

Concept sketch of the inside of the original Guthrie Theater.   

Patrick Redig 

Design of a novel fixator for repairing broken bird wings.   

James Crash Ryan 

Patent drawings of the flight recorder commonly referred to as the ‘black box’.   

Lanny Schmidt 

Sketch of the discovery of a reactor to extract hydrogen from ethanol, offering the first real hope that hydrogen could be a source of inexpensive and renewable energy.   

Otto Schmitt 

Diagram from his files on SVEC (Stereovectorelectrocardiography), which he repurposed for heart research from his development of 3D radar during World War II. Otto also invented the Schmitt Trigger, the Magnetic Anomaly Detector, and the Voluntary Cardio-Respiratory Synchronization system.   

William Schultz 

Notebook page showing some of the earliest measurements on nanocomposites developed at 3M. These materials led to the development of a number of new products based on nanoparticle technology. One of numerous patents he received while at 3M.   

Donald Deke Slayton 

Pages from his notebook in 1970. Deke made these notes on his choice for astronaut crews, including the selection of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin for the first lunar landing crew. At the time, Slayton was Director of NASA Flight Crew Operations and crew selections were his responsibility. He was also one of the original Mercury 7 astronauts.   

Athelstan Spilhaus 

Personal notes, calculations and patent drawings for the bathythermograph, an instrument he perfected that was of vital importance in World War II in the battle against the German U-boat. During the war, the bathythermograph became standard equipment on all U.S. Navy subs and vessels involved in antisubmarine warfare.   

Sarah Susanka 

A section through the stairway of the original The Not So Big House prototype, built in St. Paul in 1996, to illustrate all the concepts and principles described in the 1998 book of the same name.   

Anne Taylor 

Graph from a clinical trial based on 30 years of heart failure research at the University of Minnesota that found the drug, a fixed dose isosorbide dinitrate/ hydralazine, reduced significantly death and hospitalization in African American heart failure patients.   

James Thornton 

Page from his notebook on the development of the CDC 6600, the world’s first supercomputer, designed with Seymour Cray.   

Josephine Tilden 

Page from journals of her 1912 expedition that sailed from New York through the Suez Canal in search of rare algae specimens in Australia and New Zealand. 

Catherine Verfaillie 

The first ‘aha’ moment on stem cells in Morayma’s notebook. Identified an adult stem cell that offers hope for a cure to many debilitating diseases and injuries.   
Note: "Morayma" is Morayma Reyes, Ph.d. '01, M.D. '03, who worked with Verfaillie as a researcher at the Stem Cell Institute while at Minnesota. She is now a muscular dystrophy researcher in the Chamberlain Lab at the Univeristy of Washington.

Robert Vince 

Journal pages from research notes of Professor Robert Vince and research associate, Mei Hua, showing the final experiment in the synthesis of Carbovir, the first compound in the series leading to the drug, Ziagen® (abacavir) which was the basis for the well-known AIDS drug sold by Glaxo SmithKline.   

Owen Wangensteen 

Sketch for publication in the Western Journal of Surgery (40:1, 1932) of a stomach pump to manage intestinal obstructions, known as the ‘Wangensteen tube’ which has been credited with saving many thousands of lives.   

Warren Warwick 

Designed a High Frequency Chest Compression device to be used as an aid in clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with Cystic Fibrosis or other obstructive lung disease. Tens of thousands of patients in the U.S. alone now receive HFCC therapy, the quality of their lives markedly improved. 

Lee Wattenberg 

Published report in the Minnesota Medical Bulletin by Dr. Wattenberg, who was widely seen as a cofounder of chemoprevention - the process of using a diverse variety of compounds including constituents of vegetables and fruits, synthetics and medicinals to prevent cancer. He also established chemoprevention as an important means of cancer prevention. 

Roberta Hill Whiteman 

‘Mind maps’ from the biography of Dr. L. Rosa Minoka-Hill, to be published by the University of Nebraska Press.   

Roy Wilkins 

Rare example of an autograph manuscript of a speech by the civil rights activist and former executive director of the NAACP, delivered at the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, Washington, D.C., 1969.   

James Wright 

Manuscript from his book of poems Shall We Gather at the River, published 1968.   

Robert Youngquist 

Sketch from patent of a device for the visual observation of magnetic signals recorded on a magnetic recording medium in tape or sheet form. One of numerous patents he received while at 3M.

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