Enteroviruses Classification Essay

1. The Pirbright Institute. The Picornavirus Pages. Surrey: The Pirbright Institute; 7 Jun 2016. [Accessed 20 Jun 2016]. Available from: http://www.picornaviridae.com

2. Hyypiä T, Hovi T, Knowles NJ, Stanway G. Classification of enteroviruses based on molecular and biological properties.J Gen Virol. 1997;78(Pt 1):1-11. 10.1099/0022-1317-78-1-1 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

3. Knowles NJ, Hovi T, Hyypiä T, King AMQ, Lindberg AM, Pallansch MA, et al. Picornaviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, editors. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Elsevier; 2012 p. 855-880.

4. Minor P, Brown F, Domingo E, Hoey E, King A, Knowles N, et al. Picornaviridae. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis A, Martelli GP, et al., editors. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Vienna: Springer-Verlag; 1995. p. 329-336.

5. Grist NR, Bell EJ, Assaad F. Enteroviruses in human disease.Prog Med Virol. 1978;24:114-57. [PubMed]

6. Solomon T, Lewthwaite P, Perera D, Cardosa MJ, McMinn P, Ooi MH. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71.Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10(11):778-90. 10.1016/S1473-3099 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

7. Fischer TK, Nielsen AY, Sydenham TV, Andersen PH, Andersen B, Midgley SE. Emergence of enterovirus 71 C4a in Denmark, 2009 to 2013.Euro Surveill. 2014;19(38):20911. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.38.20911 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

8. Harvala H, Calvert J, Van Nguyen D, Clasper L, Gadsby N, Molyneaux P, et al. Comparison of diagnostic clinical samples and environmental sampling for enterovirus and parechovirus surveillance in Scotland, 2010 to 2012.Euro Surveill. 2014;19(15):20772. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.15.20772 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

9. Chumakov M, Voroshilova M, Shindarov L, Lavrova I, Gracheva L, Koroleva G, et al. Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria.Arch Virol. 1979;60(3-4):329-40. 10.1007/BF01317504 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

10. Schuffenecker I, Henquell C, Mirand A, Coste-Burel M, Marque-Juillet S, Desbois D, et al. New introductions of enterovirus 71 subgenogroup C4 strains, France, 2012.Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1343-6. 10.3201/eid2008.131858 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

11. Akhmadishina LV, Govorukhina MV, Kovalev EV, Nenadskaya SA, Ivanova OE, Lukashev AN. Enterovirus A71 Meningoencephalitis Outbreak, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 2013.Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(8):1440-3. 10.3201/eid2108.141084 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

12. Hassel C, Mirand A, Lukashev A, TerletskaiaLadwig E, Farkas A, Schuffenecker I, et al. Transmission patterns of human enterovirus 71 to, from and among European countries, 2003 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(34):30005. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.34.30005 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

13. McWilliam Leitch EC, Cabrerizo M, Cardosa J, Harvala H, Ivanova OE, Koike S, et al. The association of recombination events in the founding and emergence of subgenogroup evolutionary lineages of human enterovirus 71.J Virol. 2012;86(5):2676-85. 10.1128/JVI.06065-11 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

14. Lee BE, Davies HD. Aseptic meningitis.Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007;20(3):272-7. 10.1097/QCO.0b013e3280ad4672 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. de Ory F, Avellón A, Echevarría JE, Sánchez-Seco MP, Trallero G, Cabrerizo M, et al. Viral infections of the central nervous system in Spain: a prospective study.J Med Virol. 2013;85(3):554-62. 10.1002/jmv.23470 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. Cabrerizo M, Trallero G, Echevarría JE, Moreno-Docón A, Pena MJ, Pérez-Ruiz M, et al. Molecular characterization of enteroviruses associated with neurological infections in Spain, 2008.J Med Virol. 2013;85(11):1975-7. 10.1002/jmv.23693 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

17. Midgley CM, Jackson MA, Selvarangan R, Turabelidze G, Obringer E, Johnson D, et al. Severe respiratory illness associated with enterovirus D68 - Missouri and Illinois, 2014.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(36):798-9. [PMC free article][PubMed]

18. Greninger AL, Naccache SN, Messacar K, Clayton A, Yu G, Somasekar S, et al. A novel outbreak enterovirus D68 strain associated with acute flaccid myelitis cases in the USA (2012-14): a retrospective cohort study.Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(6):671-82. 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70093-9 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Messacar K, Schreiner TL, Maloney JA, Wallace A, Ludke J, Oberste MS, et al. A cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction temporally associated with an outbreak of enterovirus D68 in children in Colorado, USA.Lancet. 2015;385(9978):1662-71. 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62457-0 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

20. Poelman R, Schuffenecker I, Van Leer-Buter C, Josset L, Niesters HG, Lina B, ESCV-ECDC EV-D68 study group European surveillance for enterovirus D68 during the emerging North-American outbreak in 2014.J Clin Virol. 2015;71:1-9. 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.07.296 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

21. Jaramillo-Gutierrez G, Benschop KS, Claas EC, de Jong AS, van Loon AM, Pas SD, et al. September through October 2010 multi-centre study in the Netherlands examining laboratory ability to detect enterovirus 68, an emerging respiratory pathogen.J Virol Methods. 2013;190(1-2):53-62. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.02.010 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

22. Böttcher S, Prifert C, Weißbrich B, Adams O, Aldabbagh S, Eis-Hübinger AM, et al. Detection of enterovirus D68 in patients hospitalised in three tertiary university hospitals in Germany, 2013 to 2014.Euro Surveill. 2016;21(19):30227. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.19.30227 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

23. Rotbart HA, Romero JR. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections. In: Robart H, editor. Human Enteroviurs Infections. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 1995. p.401-418.

24. Kadambari S, Bukasa A, Okike IO, Pebody R, Brown D, Gallimore C, et al. Enterovirus infections in England and Wales, 2000-2011: the impact of increased molecular diagnostics.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(12):1289-96. 10.1111/1469-0691.12753 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

25. Romero JR. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of the enteroviruses.Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1999;123(12):1161-9. [PubMed]

26. World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. Enterovirus surveillance guidelines: Guidelines for enterovirus surveillance in support of the Polio Eradication Initiate. Copenhagen: WHO; 2015. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/272810/EnterovirusSurveillanceGuidelines.pdf

27. McLeish NJ, Witteveldt J, Clasper L, McIntyre C, McWilliam Leitch EC, Hardie A, et al. Development and assay of RNA transcripts of enterovirus species A to D, rhinovirus species a to C, and human parechovirus: assessment of assay sensitivity and specificity of real-time screening and typing methods.J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(9):2910-7. 10.1128/JCM.01172-12 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

28. Piralla A, Daleno C, Scala A, Greenberg D, Usonis V, Principi N, et al. Genome characterisation of enteroviruses 117 and 118: a new group within human enterovirus species C.PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e60641. 10.1371/journal.pone.0060641 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

29. Lewandowska DW, Zagordi O, Zbinden A, Schuurmans MM, Schreiber P, Geissberger FD, et al. Unbiased metagenomic sequencing complements specific routine diagnostic methods and increases chances to detect rare viral strains.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;83(2):133-8. 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2015.06.017 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Oberste MS, Maher K, Kilpatrick DR, Pallansch MA. Molecular evolution of the human enteroviruses: correlation of serotype with VP1 sequence and application to picornavirus classification.J Virol. 1999;73(3):1941-8. [PMC free article][PubMed]

31. Simmonds P. SSE: a nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis platform.BMC Res Notes. 2012;5(1):50. 10.1186/1756-0500-5-50 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

32. Kadambari S, Okike I, Ribeiro S, Ramsay ME, Heath PT, Sharland M, et al. Seven-fold increase in viral meningo-encephalitis reports in England and Wales during 2004-2013.J Infect. 2014;69(4):326-32. 10.1016/j.jinf.2014.05.012 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

33. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Facts about influenza surveillance. Stockholm: ECDC. [Accessed 23 Jun 2016]. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/surveillance-and-disease-data/facts-sentinel-surveillance

34. Skowronski DM, Chambers C, Sabaiduc S, Murti M, Gustafson R, Pollock S, et al. Systematic community- and hospital-based surveillance for enterovirus-D68 in three Canadian provinces, August to December 2014.Euro Surveill. 2015;20(43):30047. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.43.30047 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

35. Meijer A, Benschop KS, Donker GA, van der Avoort HG. Continued seasonal circulation of enterovirus D68 in the Netherlands, 2011-2014.Euro Surveill. 2014;19(42):20935. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.42.20935 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

36. Reiche J, Böttcher S, Diedrich S, Buchholz U, Buda S, Haas W, et al. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68-Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014.Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):837-41. 10.3201/eid2105.141900 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

37. Pfeiffer HC, Bragstad K, Skram MK, Dahl H, Knudsen PK, Chawla MS, et al. Two cases of acute severe flaccid myelitis associated with enterovirus D68 infection in children, Norway, autumn 2014.Euro Surveill. 2015;20(10):21062. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2015.20.10.21062 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

38. Lang M, Mirand A, Savy N, Henquell C, Maridet S, Perignon R, et al. Acute flaccid paralysis following enterovirus D68 associated pneumonia, France, 2014.Euro Surveill. 2014;19(44):20952. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.44.20952 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

39. Williams CJ, Thomas RH, Pickersgill TP, Lyons M, Lowe G, Stiff RE, et al. Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barré syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016.Euro Surveill. 2016;21(4):30119. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.4.30119 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

40. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Outbreak of enterovirus A71 with severe neurological symptoms among children in Catalonia, Spain. Stockholm: ECDC; 14 Jun 2016. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/07-06-2016-RRA-Enterovirus%2071-Spain.pdf

41. Ooi MH, Wong SC, Lewthwaite P, Cardosa MJ, Solomon T. Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus 71.Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(11):1097-105. 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70209-X [PubMed][Cross Ref]

42. Nix WA, Oberste MS, Pallansch MA. Sensitive, seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirus serotypes from original clinical specimens.J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(8):2698-704. 10.1128/JCM.00542-06 [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

43. Benschop K, Minnaar R, Koen G, van Eijk H, Dijkman K, Westerhuis B, et al. Detection of human enterovirus and human parechovirus (HPeV) genotypes from clinical stool samples: polymerase chain reaction and direct molecular typing, culture characteristics, and serotyping.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;68(2):166-73. 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2010.05.016 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

44. Leitch EC, Harvala H, Robertson I, Ubillos I, Templeton K, Simmonds P. Direct identification of human enterovirus serotypes in cerebrospinal fluid by amplification and sequencing of the VP1 region.J Clin Virol. 2009;44(2):119-24. 10.1016/j.jcv.2008.11.015 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

45. World Health Organization (WHO). Polio laboratory manual. Geneva: WHO; 2004. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/68762

46. Zaidi SS, Asghar H, Sharif S, Alam MM. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1387:11-8. 10.1007/978-1-4939-3292-4_2 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

47. World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. Meeting of Regional and Global Specialized Polio Reference Laboratories of the WHO European Polio Laboratory Network (2015). Copenhagen: WHO; 11-12 Mar 2015. [Accessed 23 Jun 2016]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/172717/1/Polio-Laboratory-Network-Meeting.pdf

2.1.1. Genome and Structure

RVs and EVs are small, non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses with a genome of about 7.2 to 7.5 kb packed in a 30 nm icosahedric capsid. This capsid is composed of the assembly of 12 pentamers of 5 protomers, consisting of the four capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4. VP1 is located at the external side and is the major target of the immune response [11], even if VP2 and VP3 contribute to the antigenicity. VP4 is localized on the internal surface of the capsid and interacts with the genome.

An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is located in the 5′untranslated region of the genome (5′UTR) and is necessary for translation. This translation gives rise to a precursor polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases in 11 mature proteins. The single open reading frame is divided into three regions: the first region of the genome, P1, encodes for capsid proteins (VP1 to VP4), whereas the next regions, P2 and P3, give rise to non-structural proteins (2A to 2C and 3A to 3D) (Figure 1). Regarding structural elements, a cloverleaf structure is located close to the IRES in the 5′-UTR and a small stem loop in the 3′-UTR. Another stem loop structure, the cis-acting replication element (cre), is positioned at different places throughout the polyprotein coding region, depending on the viral species. A small viral protein, VPg, is covalently bound to the 5′ end of the genome, but seems to be cleaved from the genomic RNA early in the replication cycle. This protein is implicated in priming viral genome for replication, but recent studies have reported that its presence does not affect translation or replication [12,13]. Thus, it is unclear why this peptide is cleaved from genomic RNA shortly after its release in the cytoplasm, and it has been speculated that VPg unlinking may be necessary for proper encapsidation of newly synthesized genomic RNAs in particles as only VPg-containing viral RNA is found in virions [13].

Figure 1. Enterovirus genome organisation.

Figure 1. Enterovirus genome organisation.

0 Replies to “Enteroviruses Classification Essay”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *