The Columbian Exchange Essays

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The Columbian Exchange is the exchange of plants, animals, food, and diseases between Europe and the Americas. In 1492, when Christopher Columbus came to America, he saw plants and animals he had never seen before so he took them back with him to Europe. Columbus began the trade routes which had never been established between Europe and the Americas so his voyages initiated the interchange of plants between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, which doubled the food crop resources available to people on both sides of the Atlantic. When the Europeans explored the Americas, they were introduced to new plants, foods, and animals, as well as riches and land. Foods such as corn, white and sweet potatoes, beans, tomatoes, cacao, fruits,…show more content…

Europeans also brought a number of domesticated animals to the New World, including cattle, pigs, sheep, and fowl, which served as valuable sources of food and clothing. While the Native Americans introduced the Europeans to many new foods, the Europeans also introduced the American Indians to foods they had never come across. Grains such as wheat, rye, barley, oats and rice were shared. Citrus fruits, grapes, onions, cabbage, turnips, cotton, coffee, sugarcane, as well as spices and herbs, were among the many other foods and plants introduced to Native American culture. Also introduced were European religion and culture, new tools for agriculture, and new weaponry such as knives and firearms. One consequence of the exchange was mass death. In the search for new routes for trade, people of Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas came in contact with each other, causing the spread of disease. Columbus's colonization brought a host of new diseases to the populations of the Americas. Europeans exported their diseases such as influenza, tuberculosis and smallpox. In return, European traders and colonizers returned the Europe with syphilis and typhus from the Americas. The slave trade caused the spread of malaria and yellow fever from Africa to the Caribbean and North America, and yellow fever to Europe. While trying to adapt Native Americans to European customs, Columbus and his followers took advantage of the Indians. The Spanish burned the

The conquest of the New World by Europeans had both positive and negative affects for both the conquered peoples and the Europeans. Although the Exploration benefited many people, it negatively affected the people in the New World enormously. Christopher Columbus decided to travel to the New World where he thought he has discovered Asia when in reality he had reached what is today the Bahamas. It was only acceptable for Columbus to assume his discovery due to his lack of knowledge of geography. After his discovery, there were various exchanges occurring with goods, diseases, and slavery. Due to the exploration of the New World, there were a few positives that came out of this conquest. Firstly, the New World received chickens, rice, rye, onions, garlic, tomatoes, and more. “Both New and Old Worlds gained from the Columbian Exchange, but the New World gained more because its plant and animal species had been diverse.”

One of the most important things that were exchanged during this time was tobacco. Tobacco was introduced to the Old World, which was something that created a massive change in their culture. Another positive outcome from the Columbian exchange was the impact it had on navigation and missionary activity. Discovering the New World allowed the explorers to aspire to further their knowledge in technology and because of this advances occurred. They improved the aspect of the compass, and now used better tools to help them measure latitude and longitude. Because of the exploration to the New World, there were many advantages to their discoveries and they changed the way of life of both Worlds. Although there were plenty of advantages from the Columbian exchange, the negative results overpowered the good of the cause. Not only was their slavery involved with the exchanges, but also an exchange of diseases. Diseases such as smallpox, influenza, malaria and whooping cough were just the few that affected the New World. “Europeans inadvertently carried diseases that had a devastating effect on the native population of America that lacked immunities.” These diseases had such an affect on the New World that “the population of Mexico dropped by more than 90 percent in the century after Cortés arrived in 1519.”

The people of the New World were not able to cure themselves because they were exposed to diseases that they weren’t familiar with. This resulted in numerous deaths all across the New World and became an epidemic that affected not only the culture, but also the way of life in the New World. Slavery was also a horrible result of the Columbian exchange as well. Europeans bought people from the New World to work for them as their slaved. People were beaten and treated inhumanly for all the wrong reasons. Even though the exchange involved goods, people were also mistreated and used as materials. There is nothing that can be exchanged that is worth more than the value of a human being. The Europeans took that away from the people of the New World. Many natives also lost their homes and their way of life due to the explorers taking over their land. Many were forced to become a part of Christianity due to Christopher Columbus’ want to spread his faith.

Many people were forced to convert religions due to this demand. People had their lives in order and had already built a lifestyle for themselves before the European explorers arrived. The exchange of goods means nothing compared to how the lives of so many people were affected. Many were affected emotionally and mentally just because the explorers decided to take matters into their own hands and change places that people called home. It is important that one must realize is that even though the materials that were exchanged might have been a rise in both cultures, it is incomparable to the way the people of the New World were mistreated. In conclusion, the conquest of the New World by Europeans had both pros and cons.

Due to Christopher Columbus’ wrong assumption, it changed and impacted people’s lives forever. He and his explorers changed life of the natives in more negative than positive ways. He changed them in ways that were impossible to forget or forgive. The exploration was a change in the world and a time of great curiosity. It was a change that involved new beginnings yet horrible outcomes. The exploration definitely had a negative impact more than a positive one.

Greene, Thomas. “The Columbian Exchange And The Reversal Of Fortune.” 27 (2007): 92-93.

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