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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a problem that affects 5 % to 10 % of all children. ADD affect more children than any other childhood problems except asthma. It is estimated to be the largest single cause for first referrals to child guidance clinics throughout the country, making up as many as 40 % of those cases. Many ADD cases are not diagnosed because the problem most often does not show in the doctors office. Current estimates suggest that approximately 50 to 65 % of the children with ADD will have symptoms of the disorder as adolescents and adults.
Although ADD has just recently been discovered and there is still relatively little known about it. In 1902, George Frederick Still believed the dilemma of the problem child was linked to a biological defect inherited from an injury at birth and not the result of the environment. Through 1930 - 40 's stimulant drugs were first used to successfully treat many behavior problems due in part by Still's hypothesis. In 1960, Stella Chess researched in the field by writing about the "hyperactive child syndrome. " She took Still's hypothesis further stating that the resulting behavior problems stem from a biological cause, although it is linked to a genetic inheritance rather then a birth defect from an injury. Finally, in 1980, the syndrome was named Attention Deficit Disorder, due in large part to Virginia Douglas's work to find accurate ways to diagnose it (Hallowell 2). This is currently how it stands in the axis two of the DSM-IV today, with the addition of a new category Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and there sub types.
Most scientist now believe that an abnormality in brain chemistry could be to blame for the symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder. The frontal lobes of the brain are believed to be responsible for the regulation of behavior and attention. They receive information from the lower brain, which regulates arousal and screens incoming messages from within and outside of the body. The limbic system which is a group of related nervous system structures located in the midbrain and linked to emotions and feelings then sends the messages to the frontal lobes. Finally, the frontal lobes are suspected to be the site of working memory, the place where information about the immediate environment is considered for memory storage, planning, and future-directed behavior.
Scientist believe the activity in the frontal lobes is depressed in people with ADD. Studies also show, a decrease in the ability of the Attention Deficit Disorder brain to use glucose, the body's main source of energy, leading to slower and less efficient activity. Neurotransmitter provide the connection between one nerve cell and another. It is also now suspected that people with Attention Deficit Disorder have a chemical imbalance of a class of neurotransmitter called catecholamine. Dopamine, helps to form a pathway between the motor center of the midbrain and the frontal lobes, as well as a pathway between the limbic system and the frontal lobes. Without enough dopamine and related catecholamine, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, the frontal lobes are under stimulated and thus unable to perform their complex functions efficiently.
Attention Deficit Disorder is primarily considered a genetic disorder. Which is why it is labeled a axis two in the DSM-IV. Studies show that 20 - 30 % of all hyperactive children have at least one parent with ADD. However, not all cases of ADD are genetically linked. Some studies show that a small percentage of ADD cases were influenced by smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs during pregnancy. Exposure to toxins, such as lead, may also alter the brain chemistry and function.
Both of these issues are cause for concern for the at-risk population. ADD generally affects males more often than females, in a 3: 1 ratio. Because this disorder effects the brain detection of this condition is difficult. The accepted test, although today there has been an increase in research into ADD and subsequently now other tests.
The test requires a nine month observation of the person, as well as EEGs, MRIs, or a PET scan. During the nine months, the person has to show a certain number of the classic traits associated with the disorder. The EEG are used to record the amount of electrical activity that is happening in the brain. An MRI is an x-ray that shows the brain's anatomy however it is not a routine assessment. More recently, the way to diagnose ADD is the use of a PET scan, which measure the amount activity in the brain. There are two general categories for those diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder.
One is ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), this is the more prevalent of the two. A person with ADHD will show certain characteristics. Characteristics like, fidgeting, squirming, difficulty remaining seated, easily distracted, difficulty awaiting turn, interrupting, difficulty following directions, sustaining attention, shifting from one uncompleted task to another, not listening, following multiple directions, and frequently engaging in dangerous actions. The general diagnosis of ADD, as opposed to ADHD, has some, but not all of the above characteristics. There are people who have been diagnosed with ADD whose characteristics are not hyperactive but the complete opposite, they are underactive. This goes against the general notion that only kids who are hyperactive have ADD.
These children often daydream and are never mentally present anywhere. They constantly drift off into their own world during classes or conversations. This type is more prevalent in females with ADD then in males. The underlining issues with these children are the inability to focus, they are too easily distracted. This form of ADD is the hardest to diagnose since it seems that these people simply need to "apply themselves more" or "get their act together. " Attention Deficit Disorder not only effects those afflicted in the classroom but at home as well. The rest of the families daily routine may become a distraction to those afflicted with ADD.
Sometimes a television or radio that is turned on in another room may become distraction. What the ADD person needs is a sound screen. A sound screen is some form of constant noise that plays in the background, commonly a television or a radio. At first it may seem like a distraction, but in reality, if the TV or music forms a kind of "white noise" with an even level of intensity, which actually covers up discrepant noises that can be a distraction. "The hum of a ceiling fan or motor can do wonders to soothe and focus you" (Weiss. 7). Getting a family household to function smoothly is challenging for any family, with or without the presence of ADD. Adults and children suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder have trouble establishing and maintaining physical order, coordinating schedules and activities, and accepting and meeting responsibilities.
Parents with children suffering with ADD have to learn how to deal with the obstacles that they will have while raising their child. Since ADD is genetically passed through to children the tendency is to have more then just the child with ADD but the parents too. Not only does the child have a problem with rules and schedules but so does the parent. Adults dealing with ADD often have chronic employment problems, impulsive spending, and erratic bookkeeping and bill paying.
Raising healthy, well-adjusted children requires patience, sound judgment, good humor, and, discipline which is difficult for a parent with ADD to do. The presence of ADD often hinders the development of intimate relationships for a variety of reasons. Although many adults with ADD enjoy successful, satisfying marriages, the disorder almost always adds a certain amount of extra tension and pressure to the union. The non-ADD spouse bears an additional burden...
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Research essay sample on Attention Deficit Disorder Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There is no shortage of material readily available on the Internet on the diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including good primary source material as well as academic or scholarly studies. In fact, the question of whether ADHD is being properly diagnosed or, rather, is being misapplied or abused as an easy answer to the question of why so many children, especially boys, are unruly or seemingly incapable of focusing...
There is no shortage of material readily available on the Internet on the diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including good primary source material as well as academic or scholarly studies. In fact, the question of whether ADHD is being properly diagnosed or, rather, is being misapplied or abused as an easy answer to the question of why so many children, especially boys, are unruly or seemingly incapable of focusing on a task, particularly in the class room, is a valid topic for a research paper. Some parents and others believe that too many children are now being categorized as ADHD is a convenient means of justifying the use of prescription medications to sedate or chemically alter the behavior of children who might otherwise simply be “too energetic.” There is no question that boys are “wired” differently than girls; having spent hundreds of hours in elementary schools observing and working with both, this educator can attest to the visible distinction between the behavioral patterns of the two genders at early ages, both in the classroom and in the cafeteria and on the playground. Boys, in general, are more physically active and less able to “sit still” at a desk than are girls of the same age group. Whether that means they are ADHD, however, is an entirely other matter. Many, though, are being categorized as ADHD and are being subjected to treatments for that condition. A thesis focusing on that subject would be both feasible and worthwhile, as would a thesis focusing on treatment options, such as the question of whether medications are being properly or overly prescribed and administered.
Linked below are websites for the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, both of which provide definitions and voluminous usable data on ADHD that should be used in any research project on this subject. The CDC site in particular will be very helpful in attaining data and linking to additional articles on the subject of ADHD. A good article to consult is “Are Stimulants Overprescribed?: Treatment of ADHD in Four U.S. Communities, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856709665278” Many of these articles may only be available in abstract form or require payment for access; in such cases, it is recommended that the student visit a library, preferably a university library, to attain a hard copy. Simply by typing in the phrase “diagnosis and treatment of ADHD,” however, will provide many useful links to this topic.